The previous 13 instalments in this series related to networking, but we’re going to change tack completely for this instalment, and look at two un-reltaed, but very useful terminal commands –
screen is a utility that allows for the creation of persistent virtual terminal sessions that you can disconnect from without terminating, and reconnect and pick up where you left off at a later time.
screen is particularly useful when used in conjunction with SSH.
cron on the other hand is a system for automatically executing recurring tasks. It’s extremely flexible, and very useful for things like scheduling backups to run in the middle of the night.
While it’s very easy to install
hsxkpasswd onto your system from CPAN – it’s literally just one command (see below) – it requires administrator access to the machine.
sudo cpan Crypt::HSXKPasswd
This is all well and good if you have administrator access and are sure you want the module installed system-wide. But, what if you don’t have admin access, or, what if you just want to experiment with the module in your own home directory? The answer is
perlbrew, a system for running custom versions of Perl inside your home directory. No need for
sudo, and what ever you install with
perlbrew is entirely contained within your home directory. If you already have
perlbrew installed and configured with a version of Perl greater than or equal to 5.16, you can skip to the final step. If not, you’ll need to make your way through all the steps.
Step 1 – Install
perlbrew Into Your Home Dir
There are a few different ways of installing
perlbrew, but I find the following method the simplest:
curl -L http://install.perlbrew.pl | bash
That should install
perlbrew into your home directory, and it should tell you to append some code to the end of your
~/.bash_profile file, which you can do with the following command:
echo 'source ~/perl5/perlbrew/etc/bashrc' >> ~/.bash_profile
Once that’s done, close your Terminal window and open a new one (this is to pick up the new environment variables defined in
~/perl5/perlbrew/etc/bashrc). You’ll know the install has been successful if you can run the
Step 2 – Install a Compatible Version of Perl into
The joy of
perlbrew is that you can have as many versions of Perl installed at any one time as you like, and you can then switch between them with the
You can install
Crypt::HSXKpasswd, and hence the
hsxkpasswd terminal command, into any version of Perl greater than or equal to 5.16.
The following command will install Perl 5.16 into
perlbrew install perl-5.16.0
Go off and make yourself a cup of your favourite beverage – this will take a while! 🙂
Once the install finally finishes, you can activate that version of perl (just on your account) with the command:
perlbrew switch perl-5.16.0
It’s important to note that if at any stage you want to disable
perlbrew and get back to the default system version of perl, the command to do so is:
Step 3 – Enable the
perlbrew CPAN Client
If you haven’t already done so, enable the
perlbrew CPAN client
cpanm with the command:
Step 4 – Install
Once you have
perlbrew installed and configured with a compatible version of perl, you can install
Crypt::HSXKPasswd with the following simple command:
You’ll know it’s worked if you can run the
hsxkpasswd terminal command:
This is the second part of a two-part post – read part 1 here.
In part 1 we learned how to use the command line too
hsxkpasswd to generate passwords, and how to use various flags to specify custom password generation configurations, and word sources. In this second part we’ll look at how to save these customisations for future use with
Since version 3.5, the
Crypt::HSXKPasswd password generating perl module ships with a command line interface to the password generator called
hsxkpasswd. This provides a way for non-Perl programers to access the vast majority of the module’s functionality.
The easiest way to install the module, and it’s accompanying terminal command is via CPAN:
sudo cpan Crypt::HSXKPasswd
Once the module is installed, you’ll have access to the
hsxkpasswd terminal command.
Getting started is simple, run the command with no arguments at all and it will generate one password using the default settings:
bart-iMac2013:~ bart$ hsxkpasswd @@26.MEASURE.below.LIFT.95@@ bart-iMac2013:~ bart$
If you want more passwords, pass a number as an argument, and you’ll get that many passwords:
bart-iMac2013:~ bart$ hsxkpasswd 10 ~~08!hole!VOWEL!then!45~~ $$49^monday^YELLOW^remember^22$$ //69-express-MONDAY-edge-54// --42~KITCHEN~save~COLD~40-- ==51%REPLY%even%AUGUST%28== %%63&list&INSIDE&train&58%% ^^19!spain!CONGO!spain!01^^ ::30@SMILED@from@PERIOD@90:: &&05%decimal%THREE%remember%80&& ..47^ROAD^dress^BERLIN^11.. bart-iMac2013:~ bart$
Firstly, thanks to everyone who runs beta versions of
Crypt::HSXKPasswd – every bug you find makes the software that little bit better!
However, now that the software is in CPAN, many of you may well want to move away from the stand-alone beta releases, and start getting the module directly from CPAN. Before you install the module from CPAN, you should remove the beta from your system. You can do that in two easy steps:
sudo cpan App::pmuninstall
pm-uninstallto remove the beta version of
sudo pm-uninstall Crypt::HSXKPasswd
The previous instalment we introduced the HTTP protocol. In this instalment we’ll look at three terminal commands which make use of the HTTP protocol.
We’ll start by browsing from the terminal, and then move on to a pair of very similar commands for making HTTP requests from the terminal. These two commands can do many things, but we’ll focus on two specific use-cases, downloading files, and viewing HTTP headers.
In the previous instalment we finished a five-part series on SSH. Before moving on, lets take a moment to step back and look at the big-picture. The five SSH instalments are all part of the now long-running series on networking. We have been working our way through the networking stack since instalment 23. We started at the bottom of the stack, and have worked our way up. We are not exploring protocols in the Application Layer.
In this instalment we’re moving on from SSH to HTTP, the protocol that powers the world wide web.
Before we look at some HTTP-related terminal commands, we need a basic understanding of how HTTP works, so that’s what this instalment is all about.
This is the final SSH instalment. So far we’ve learned how to securely execute terminal commands on remote computers, how to securely copy files across the network using SSH, how to add both security and convenience to both those operations with SSH key pairs, and how to tunnel just about anything through SSH. In this final instalment we’ll look two approaches for creating SSH bookmarks, SSH config files, and SSH GUIs.
This is the fourth SSH instalment. So far we’ve learned how to securely execute terminal commands on remote computers, how to securely copy files across the network using SSH, and how to add both security and convenience to both those operations with SSH key pairs.
As we saw in the previous instalment, SSH’s ability to provide a secure connection between two computers can be used in many different ways. In this instalment we’ll learn about three more ways to encapsulate other network traffic within an SSH connection, adding encryption to that traffic.
Running commands and copying files are the kinds of things most people do, so the three SSH instalments to date have been quite generally applicable. That is not the case for this instalment. The three SSH features we’ll be discussing are all very useful to those who need them, but only a minority will have a use for any one of these features. However, even if you don’t need these features today, I would argue that it’s good to know these features exist, because they could well solve a problem you’ll have in the future.
There will be illustrations of the uses for these technologies, but not commands you type into your terminal to play along at home. That makes this an unusual instalment, but I hope you will still find it worthwhile.