At this stage we’ve learned about five key components to any programming language, and how they are implemented in JavaScript – variables, operators, branching, arrays, and loops. Now it’s time to add another – functions.

A function is a collection of statements that is given a name so it can be easily re-used. We’ve already used functions, but without knowing that’s what we’ve been doing.

Our Playground

For this instalment we will yet again be using our JavaScript playground. You can download the code for the playground here, or, you can use the online version at www.bartb.ie/pbsdemos/pbs-JavaScriptPlayground/.

You’ve Already Used Functions

In JavaScript, you execute, call, or invoke, a function by giving its name, and adding two brackets after it. Those two brackets can optionally contain a list of one or more inputs to the function, known as arguments. Functions can optionally return an output.

Throughout all our JavaScript examples we’ve been using the pbs.say() function to write text to our playground’s output area. We’ve been passing the function a single argument, the text to be printed. This function takes one argument, and returns nothing. Functions that return nothing are sometimes referred to as being void. The pbs.inputs() function on the other hand takes no arguments, and returns an array. Finally, the pbs.input() function takes one argument, the number of the input to get the value from, and returns the content of the requested input.

We have also encountered some built-in JavaScript functions, including parseInt(), parseFloat(), isNaN(), String(), and Boolean().

Creating Your Own Functions

You can create your own functions using the function keyword:

The rules for function names are the same as the rules for variable names that we learned in instalment 12.

The argument list takes the form of zero or more argument names separated by commas. These will be the variable names by which you can address the arguments within your function.

Finally, if you want your function to return a value, use the keyword return. When an executing function meets a return statement, execution of the function stops, even if there are more lines of code after the return statement. This can be very useful, and allows for error handling without deeply nested if statements.

As an example, let’s write a function to calculate the factorial of a number, and use it to calculate the factorials of all non-empty inputs:

Variable Scope

A scope is a name-space for variables. There is a global scope, which is what we’ve been using in all examples previous to this instalment. Every function creates its own scope, and, has access to the scopes that contain it.

The scope of a variable is determined by where in the code it’s created – i.e., the location of the var keyword within your code. When you use var outside of any function, you are adding a variable to the global scope. When you use var within a function you are adding that variable to the function’s scope. The names you give your arguments are also added to the function’s scope. When you declare a function in the global scope (like we are doing in all our examples today), the function’s scope is a child scope of the global scope.

When ever you use a variable name in your code, JavaScript looks for a variable of that name in the nearest scope to the executing line of code, if it finds one, it stops looking, if not, it tries the parent scope. When your code gets more complicated, there could be many scopes nested inside each other, so JavaScript may have a long way to go to finally find the variable. If the JavaScript interpreter makes it to the global scope, and still doesn’t find a variable with the requested name, it assumes the variable is undefined.

In real terms, what this means is that functions can access global variables, but, as long as you remember to always declare your local variables with the var keyword, global variables can’t unexpectedly interfere with the innards of a function, and functions should not unexpectedly interfere with global variables. If you assume a variable is local, but forget to use var to declare it, and there is a variable with the same name in the global scope, you can end up with very strange and difficult to find bugs. A function that unintentionally uses a global variable, it can have ‘spooky action at a distance’. The offending function could be hundreds of lines of code away from the variable it’s interfering with. This is why the var keyword is so important.

Some examples may help this subtle but important concept sink in. Firstly, let’s do what you’ll want to do more often than anything else – protect the variables within a function from globally scoped variables with the same name by diligently using var within the function:

Sometimes you intentionally want to access a global variable from within a function – you do this by intentionally not declaring the the variable inside the function:

So, in the global scope our rule from instalment 12 remains – ‘always user var‘, but within functions we now need a little more nuance. We should always use var unless we are intentionally reaching out to a global variable.

To help make accidental omissions of var within functions easier to spot, some programmers adopt the convention of using all caps for the names of globally scoped variables that will be accessed from within functions.

Something to note is that each time a function runs, a new scope is created for it, so, if there are multiple instances of the same function running at the same time, each has its own scope, so each has its own copy of the variables it creates.

This facilitates a programming technique that divides people like no other – recursion.

Recursion (Optional)

Recursion is when a function calls itself. To some people this is a really intuitive solution to many problems, and to others it makes their heads explode. For that reason, this section is entirely optional. I’m going to describe recursion, and, if it makes your head explode, just skip this section and don’t worry about it.

Recursion works very well on certain data structures like trees, and, in problems that can be expressed in a self referential way. The canonical example is calculating factorials – the factorial of 4 is 4 times the factorial of 3. The factorial of 3 is 3 times the factorial of two, and so on. This means you can define a factorial with two simple rules:

  1. The factorial of 1 is 1
  2. The factorial of n, where n is an integer greater than 1, is n times the factorial of n – 1

You can translate those two rules into a very simple piece of recursive code:

Recursion is actually another form of looping. We step through the values of intN by subtracting one from it each time we make a recursive call. We also have a terminating condition – when intN gets down to 1, the recursion stops.

This is an advanced technique, and one that comes with a health warning – deep recursion is very RAM hungry – each recursive call creates a new scope, so, each recursive call uses a finite amount of memory – that will add up if you go nuts.

Secondly, it’s easy to make a mistake and end up with the recursive equivalent of an infinite loop – this will not only consume CPU, but also RAM, so you can crash your browser very badly if you make a boo boo.

The key thing to watch out for is that you update your value before making the recursive call, and that your terminating condition will always be met.

Just a reminder – you can consider recursion an optional bonus topic – it’s not a technique we’ll be relying on in this series, so if it doesn’t make sense to you, don’t worry about it.

Object References & Functions

When we first learned about variables, I made a point of saying that in JavaScript, a variable can hold a literal value, or a reference to an object. When we learned about arrays, I made a point of highlighting that in JavaScript, arrays are objects. This becomes very important when it comes to using arrays with functions.

What ever you pass to a function, or return from a function, gets copied. When you pass a variable that contains a literal value, the literal value gets copied. But, when you pass a variable that contains a reference to an array, the reference gets copied – not the array – so there is only ever one copy of the array. You must bear this in mind when altering arrays within functions – you are not altering a copy of the array!

To illustrate the difference, lets first pass a literal value to a function, and alter it within the function and see what happens:

As you can see when you run the above code – altering the passed value inside the function has no effect outside the function, because a contained a literal value, so the function was manipulating a copy of that value.

Now let’s see what happens when we pass an array:

It is perfectly valid to write a function which intentionally alters an object, like in the above example. The thing to watch out for is that you should never alter an object unintentionally. If you do, your code will develop very strange bugs indeed, as function calls start to have unexpected side-effects.

A Challenge

Rather than a final worked example, I’m including a challenge instead. If you’d like to test your understanding of the concepts we’ve covered so far, this challenge is for you. I’ll include a solution at the start of the next instalment.

Write a function that returns the average value of an arbitrarily long array of numbers. Use that function to average up to three numbers entered in the input fields in the PBS playground, and print out the result. Your solution should also behave sensibly if the user executes the code without entering any values into any of the inputs.

In case you’re a little rusty, just a reminder that you calculate the average of a set of numbers by adding them all together, and then dividing the result of that addition by the amount of numbers being averaged.


This introduction to functions has given us a basic understanding of how they work, however, we still have more to learn about them. Firstly, we can be a lot cleverer about how we deal with arguments – we can make our functions do different things depending on how many arguments were passed, and, we can even make our functions accept an arbitrary number of arguments. Secondly, we’ll discover that like arrays, in JavaScript, functions are objects too. This simple fact has some very significant implications – including the related concepts of anonymous functions and callbacks. The latter two are central to JavaScript’s integration into the browser.